1. ‘This, O bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of Suffering: birth is suffering;
decay is suffering; illness is suffering; death is suffering. Presence of objects
we hate is suffering; separation from objects we love is suffering; not to
obtain what we desire is suffering. Briefly, the fivefold clinging to existence
2. ‘This, O bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering: craving,
that leads to re-birth, accompanied by pleasure and lust, finding its
delight here and there. This craving is threefold, namely, craving for
pleasure, craving for
craving for prosperity.’
3. ‘This, O bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering: (it
ceases with) the complete cessation of this craving - a cessation which
consists in the absence of every passion - with the
abandoning of this craving, with the doing-away with it, with the
deliverance from it, with the destruction of craving.’
4. ‘This, O bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Path which leads to the Cessation
of Suffering: that holy eightfold path, that is to say, right
belief, right aspiration, right speech, right conduct, right means of
livelihood, right endeavour, right memory, right meditation.
The 4 Noble
(i.e. Aryan) truths schedule was probably invented centuries after the
Tathagata’s death since much of its content is redundant, non-logical and
highly sel;cetive (for social engineering purposes). The first Noble Truth
of the schedule actually provides a list of the causes of suffering, and
which should by stated under the Truth No2 heading. In short, in this
schedule Truths No 1 and No 2 are conflated.
craving (i.e. thirst = desire) as cause of suffering is given. This,
however, does not match the more abstract and universal causes given in the
3 characteristics sutta where anicca and anatta are provided as causes. Nor
does it reflect the content of the 8 characteristics sutta. Nor does it
reflect the Dependent Origination schedule of causes, starting with
The expanded list of the causes of dukkha
‘ending of suffering’ Noble Truth the fact of cessation and the cause of
cessation are conflated, a serious logical error.
monumental cock-up: The 4th Noble Truth should read, ‘Ending
craving (or ending the asavas) ends suffering’. However, the corrupt priest
who interpolated this late, village audience oriented pitch, added the
Noble 8-fold path and which was probably introduced centuries later to give
a positive, therefore more attractive spin (or end) to Buddhist endeavour
AND ingratiate the Sangha with its secular patrons by adding a socialising
dimension to Buddhist instruction. Bhikkus were originally homeless
wanderers for whom the Noble 8-fold Path was irrelevant.
populist official 4th Noble Truth describes release from
suffering by means of satisfaction (or perfection that overcomes
imperfection) rather than cessation of craving (i.e. desire/clinging) (i.e.
engineered either by elimination or suppression).